Analysis of the center of gravity of electric power development and power grid development
"2012 China Green ICT Industry Science and Technology Development Forum" was held in Beijing New Century Nikko Hotel on March 20, 2012. Cui Wenjia, senior engineer of the Planning and Statistical Information Department of China Electricity Council, introduced the power development situation and the focus of smart grid development. The following is the text Record.
Cui Wenjia: Good afternoon, delegates! I am from the China Electricity Council. In recent years, our China Electricity Council has carried out some research work on some topics related to smart grids. As an industry association, we may pay more attention to the The entire smart grid or the smart power system in a broader sense, some strategies for the development of our country and some policy support from the government, so today I will take the development and policy of the smart grid as the topic, and put our current situation for everyone. Some preliminary ideas and some preliminary conclusions, and some exchanges with you.
The main content of the introduction has the following four aspects. The first one is the necessity of smart grid construction. That is why our country needs to build an intelligent power grid at this stage. The second is the development strategy of the smart grid, the third is the development plan of the 12th Five-Year Plan for the smart grid, and the fourth is some policy suggestions that we want to make with the government.
The necessity of smart grid construction, my country's power development is facing new situations and requirements, the second is the power planning and layout.
The new situation and new requirements faced by the development of electric power, the first is the continuous growth of power demand, then the task of ensuring power supply is even more arduous. By the end of 2011, my country has completed the installed power generation capacity of 1.06 billion kilowatts, and built lines of 220 kV and above. 480,000 kilometers, the development of electric power has favorably supported the rapid development of society. Looking forward to the rapid development of my country's industrialization and urbanization in the future, the area of new housing and the number of automobiles will continue to grow, heavy industry will account for a large proportion, and the level of electrification will be further improved, which will continue to drive the sustained and rapid growth of electricity demand.
So in order to meet the rapid growth of electricity demand, we must require moderately advanced development of electricity. Implement the two commitments made by the Chinese government, requiring the development of green energy to improve the energy structure, to achieve the commitment of non-fossil energy to account for about 15% of the energy consumption in 2020 and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions per unit by 40%-45% compared with 2005. Develop hydropower, wind power and solar green energy.
The third aspect is that power security is related to the national economy and people’s livelihood. Economic and social development requires reliable power supply. With the increasing level of electrification, the economy and society are increasingly dependent on electricity, and the requirements for safe and reliable power supply are getting higher and higher. my country's energy transportation guarantee capacity is insufficient, the primary energy emergency reserve system is not perfect, the development of power grids is still relatively lagging behind, and the task of ensuring power security is very arduous.
In the fourth aspect, the contradiction between power development and resources and the ecological environment has become increasingly prominent. Electric power is required to follow a green and harmonious development path. With the continuous economic and social development and the continuous improvement of people's living standards, land resources are tight, and comrades engaged in the project must have realized that it is very difficult to use land for the construction of this power grid project, and the requirements for environmental protection are constantly improving. , the power industry to reduce pollutants, control greenhouse gas pressures, require power companies to apply various advanced technical means, improve efficiency, protect the environment, and take a green and harmonious development path.
The fifth situation is that the needs of power users are more diversified, and the power system is required to continuously improve the level of intelligence, because with the improvement of living standards, power users are not only concerned about the reliability of power supply, the quality of power, the service level of power consumption, but also the level of power consumption. The openness and interactivity of power supply put forward higher requirements. The popularization and application of electric vehicle energy storage devices and distributed power sources also require the grid to be compatible with the access and withdrawal of various power sources and users.
Therefore, the above five new situations and new requirements for the development of our power industry require us to improve the level of intelligence. Let's talk about the necessity of building a smart grid from the perspective of power planning and layout.
In the 12th Five-Year Plan, my country's electric power development policy is to give priority to the development of hydropower, optimize the development of coal power, develop nuclear power safely and efficiently, actively promote new energy power generation, moderately develop natural gas centralized power generation, develop distributed power generation according to local conditions, and accelerate the construction of a strong and smart grid to drive Equipment industry development, and promote green and harmonious development. This is a policy for the development of our electricity in the 12th Five-Year Plan.
The adjustment of the power supply structure, we all know that China's power generation installed capacity in 10 years is 966 million kilowatts, and the growth rate is 13.3% in the 11th five-year plan. It is expected that the installed capacity will reach 1.463 billion kilowatts by 2015, and the average growth rate in the 12th five-year period is 8.6 %, the installed capacity in 2020 is expected to reach 1.935 billion kilowatts, with an average annual growth rate of about 5.8% in 135 years. The proportion of coal power is also decreasing year by year, from 70.4% in 10 years to 63.4% in 15 years, and will decline in 2020. To about 60.5%, we are more concerned about the proportion of non-fossil energy. It is planned that by 2015, the total installed capacity of fossil energy power generation will be 495 million yuan, and the power generation will be 1.59 trillion kilowatts, accounting for 12.4% of primary energy consumption. In 2020, the total installed capacity of non-fossil energy power generation will reach 715 million kilowatts, and the power generation will be about 230 million kilowatts, accounting for 14.5% of primary energy consumption, the largest in the country. The contribution rate of non-fossil energy reaching 15% is 96.7%, which is the situation of our power structure adjustment.
This picture is a power flow diagram of my country in the future. It can be seen that due to the distribution of resources and loads in China, the power flow restricting my country must maintain the power transmission pattern of west-to-east power transmission and north-to-south power transmission, including foreign countries. The development of large-scale hydropower in Kazakhstan, Russia and Southwest China, the development of tens of millions of wind power bases in the Three Norths, and the development and delivery of large-scale coal power bases in North China and Northwest China. Preliminary analysis of my country's cross-regional long-distance transmission in 2015 exceeded 2 100 million kilowatts, more than 400 million kilowatts in 2020, this is our future power flow.
Through these new situations and requirements faced by the above-mentioned power development, the adjustment of power supply structure and the flow of power in the future, in order to support the large-scale grid-connected power generation of new energy and distributed power generation, a wide range of deployment and corresponding, to achieve the power grid A wider range of cross-regional, long-distance erection is safe, stable, and economical and efficient operation. The development of the power grid has put forward new requirements for the operation and control of the power grid, the maintenance and management of the power grid, and the power trading and power grid marketing information infrastructure. The level of intelligence puts forward higher requirements.
This part is about the necessity of building a smart grid in my country.
The second part would like to introduce the development strategy of smart grid to you.
It is divided into the following four aspects, the first is the core value of smart grid, the second is the development goal, the third is the technical route, and the fourth is the benefit analysis.
The core value of my country's development of smart grid is mainly reflected in the following five aspects.
They are to support the large-scale access of new energy sources such as wind power and solar energy, allow the access of various types of distributed power sources and energy storage equipment, realize the active participation of users, meet the differentiated needs of users, optimize the application of power grid assets, and make operation more efficient , with self-adaptive and self-propelled capabilities, this is the core value of my country's smart grid.
The development goals are the following five development goals.
The first goal is to provide effective adjustment and control means to realize the optimal and coordinated operation of new energy and traditional energy, implement the acceptance and withdrawal of new energy, and support the operation of large-scale new energy and distributed energy. The second goal is to comprehensively improve the adaptive capacity of the power grid and improve the transmission capacity of the power grid. The third goal is to optimize the grid structure and carry out intelligent operation and management across the board.
The fourth goal is to provide a flexible and efficient interactive trading platform that supports multiple modes of demand-side response and power trading to meet users' diverse electricity needs. The fifth development goal is to comprehensively optimize the construction of power grid assets, improve the efficiency of operation and management, and greatly improve the utilization rate of assets. This is a goal of my country's smart grid development.
Technical route, scientific development of smart grid, strengthening of communication network construction, technical standards and framework are the institutional guarantee for building smart grid, continuous innovation of equipment and materials technology, active research on energy storage technology to ensure access to clean energy, and construction of advanced, safe and reliable. Intelligent dispatching system, improve the technical level of intelligent equipment, carry out the construction of intelligent substation, strengthen the structure of distribution network and the construction of automation and informatization, strengthen the development of supply and demand, strengthen interactive development, intelligent electricity consumption, objective and fair performance evaluation, and ensure the development of smart grid. healthy growth
The construction benefits of smart grid are mainly reflected in three major aspects, namely energy saving and environmental protection benefits, social benefits and economic benefits. The benefits of energy conservation and environmental protection are mainly reflected in the large-scale utilization and development of renewable clean energy, which replaces the consumption of traditional fossil energy to a certain extent, promotes the utilization of low-energy-consuming units, reduces coal consumption per unit of power supply, improves the efficiency of energy use, reduces energy waste, and reduces energy consumption. emission of greenhouse gases. The social benefits are mainly reflected in the comprehensive upgrade of technology, the joint development of multiple industries, and the provision of high-quality convenience and auxiliary services to end users. The economic benefits are mainly manifested in the realization of the power grid self-adaptation and self-healing capabilities, reducing unnecessary power outage losses, the realization of demand-side response and interactive users, reducing the distribution difference of the system, and reducing the cost of electricity consumption.
The industrial control application of distributed generation system microgrid and energy storage device realizes power supply in nearby areas, optimizes the operation and management of power grid assets, and reduces the cost of power grid operation.
Introduce three aspects of the 12th Five-Year Energy Grid Development Plan, which are the development ideas of smart grid, the basic principles of development and the focus of development.
The development idea is that the development of my country's smart grid only grasps the current energy, the important basis of information technology reform and economic structure adjustment, is driven by independent innovation, relies on promoting the development of new energy and renewable energy, and serves the needs of social users. Oriented to meet the goal of sustainable economic and social development, using advanced information communication and control technology as a means to construct a modern power grid that is safe, reliable, cost-effective, clean, environmentally friendly, transparent, open, compatible and interactive. Highlighting the key points, strengthening coordination, promoting the R&D and industrialization of related technologies, accelerating the formulation and promotion of standards for independent intellectual property rights, and occupying the commanding heights and development opportunities of smart grid technology are our development ideas in the 12th Five-Year Plan.
The basic principle of development is to first abide by the rules of smart grid development and follow the international development trend. There are some rules for the development of the power system, and the development of smart grid must also follow the rules. On the basis of satisfying the safe and economic operation of the power grid, we can build a strong clean energy Acceptable smart grid system.
The second is to adhere to the principle of adapting measures to national conditions and local conditions. The development of smart grid in my country cannot copy the development model of developed countries. It should closely combine the stage of my country's economic and social development, the inherent requirements of sustainable energy development, the structural characteristics of the power system and the actual needs of power users, and take a development path that is based on China's national conditions. Third, we must adhere to the principle of independent innovation. The development of smart grids is of great significance and has broad market prospects. Countries have joined in research investment, actively promoted the construction of demonstration projects to speed up the process of industrialization, and vigorously developed the construction of standard systems. At the commanding heights of technology and market, my country must increase the strength of independent innovation, develop key technologies and equipment with independent intellectual property rights, in order to take the lead in the fierce global competition. Fourth, adhere to the principle of combining leapfrog development with steady and coordinated advancement. The development of smart grid technology in all countries in the world is basically synchronized. From the perspective of national strategy, we actively support the technical research of smart grid, realize the leap-forward development of my country's electric power and related industries, and occupy the commanding heights of development in related fields. However, smart grid is a complex system engineering. It is a multi-industry, multi-discipline, and multi-field intersection, involving policies, funds, technology, talents, management and other aspects. National strategic design should be strengthened, government-led, unified planning, and steady progress to ensure the sustainable development of smart grids.
Fifth, adhere to the principles of technical rationality and solid economic practicability. The hard science promotes the construction of smart grid, and finds a way of reasonable technology, moderate cost and effective meeting of demand, which is combined with the actual construction of smart grid in my country. , while improving the safety and friendliness of power supply, and continuously reducing costs. These are the five principles we adhere to.
Then the focus of development, the first is the access technology of large-scale new energy. At present, my country has initially planned Mengxi, Jiuquan, Jiangsu, etc., we must attach great importance to the randomness and uncontrollability of new energy power generation, and accelerate the research and application of smart grid. Power prediction, access and control, optimized operation and scheduling, large-scale low-cost energy storage and other related technologies of large-scale new energy power generation ensure the healthy development of new energy.
The second focus is on the two-way interaction between users and the grid and the technology of smart home appliances.
The electricity price level in my country is gradually rising, and the electricity consumption of urban and rural residents of industrial and commercial enterprises continues to increase. With the time-of-use electricity price of residents, combined with the electricity price level from time to time, the demand for strengthening their own electricity consumption management and realizing two-way interaction continues to grow. At the same time, there are broad prospects for breakthroughs in smart home appliances and smart home technology.
The third intelligent distributed power generation and micro-grid technology. my country's wind power development has shifted from centralized development to a combination of centralized and decentralized development. Under the guidance of policies and values, the combined heating, power and cooling of natural gas has gradually increased, mainly including microgrid simulation technology, control and protection technology, operation optimization and energy protection technology and energy storage technology. . The fourth is some cutting-edge technologies of smart grid, increase investment in capital and personnel, and advance research on cutting-edge technologies that have a revolutionary role in the construction and operation of power systems, such as fuel cell technology.
The fourth major part is the suggestion to the government. The first one raises the development of smart grid to a national strategy and incorporates it into the national economic and social development plan and energy development strategy work system. The national comprehensive department takes the lead, with the participation of relevant industries and national competent departments of the industry, to jointly study and formulate the development ideas and plans for the corresponding strategic goals, and at the same time formulate supporting measures, establish a consolidation and adjustment mechanism, and promote the implementation of the strategy and plan.
Second, implement supportive fiscal tax policies and recommend central policies and local policies at all levels. Third, the relevant suggestions should rationalize the electricity price mechanism, implement a scientific and effective electricity price policy, and suggest that government departments should theoretically set the electricity price pricing mechanism, improve the pricing structure, conduct phased, regional, and differentiated pilots, implement flexible electricity price policies, and implement flexible electricity price policies when conditions are ripe. From time to time, it will be gradually promoted. This includes four electricity prices, the hourly electricity price, the time-of-use electricity price, the green electricity price and the interruptible load electricity price.
The government authorizes power companies to release electricity prices in real time according to the power supply and demand situation and the proportion of clean energy in the power supply, and adjust the demand of power users through price leverage. The government authorizes power companies to implement more types of time-of-use tariffs to supply users to choose, and guide users to use electricity scientifically. With the rapid development of renewable energy such as small hydropower, solar energy, hydropower, ocean energy and geothermal energy.
The mid-load electricity price can be reduced, while the power generation capacity is continuously increased, the investment of the grid is reduced, and the power supply capacity of the grid is improved.
The fourth policy suggestion is to formulate relevant incentive policies to encourage research on distributed power access technology.
The research has attracted enough attention, but the technical research on access to the power grid is very weak. It is suggested that the government should formulate relevant fiscal and tax incentives to encourage the research on distributed power access technology while promoting the unified planning, unified approval, and coordinated development of distributed power generation. policies to promote the healthy and orderly development of distributed power.
The fifth suggestion is to speed up the construction of a standardized system to meet the development needs of smart grids.